The Role of Community Nurses to Prevent Domestic Violence During the Covid-19 Pandemic

  • Arnindya Kanti Prasasti Universitas Indonesia
  • Widyatuti Widyatuti Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: community, covid-19, domestic violence, effect, role, nurse


Social restrictions policies to control Covid-19’s transmissions creates new problems. Higher stressors caused by childcare, work, financial, and health with lack access to entertainment and social support cause increasing of domestic violence. Domestic violence triggers physical and mental health problems. Nurses as health workers in community has some important roles to prevent this problems. This literature review is to describe the phenomenon of domestic violence and explain the role of nurses in reducing domestic violence during the Covid-19 pandemic. The keywords used in searching for articles are Covid-19, nurse, role, pandemic, preventing, maltreatment, and domestic violence so that 15 articles obtained and 11 articles (from 2017-2021), from several reputable online journal databases such as ClinicalKey, EBSCO, Proquest, Sage Publications, Science Direct, Scopus, SpringerLink, Taylor & Francis, and Willey Online. Articles analysis is carried out using the narrative literature review methods. ommunity nurses play important roles as care providers, educators, managers, collaborators, advocates, and leaders, to prevent domestic violence during pandemic. Community nurses in preventing domestic violence experience several obstacles, such as lack of home visit due to the pandemic, a lack of understanding of community nurses about domestic violence, and the community's perception that violence is the family’s privacy.


AbuTaleb, N. I., Dashti, T. A., Alasfour, S. M., Elshazly, M., & Kamel, M. I. (2012). Knowledge and perception of domestic violence among primary care physicians and nurses: A comparative . Alexandria Journal of Medicine (2012) 48, 83–89, 83-89.
AbuTaleb, N. I., Dashti, T. A., Alasfour, S. M., Elshazly, M., & Kamel, M. I. (2012). Knowledge and perception of domestic violence among primary care physicians and nurses: A comparative study. Alexandria Journal of Medicine (2012) 48, 83–89.
Afifi, T., MacMillan, H., Boyle, M., Cheung, K., Taillieu, T., Turner, S., & Sareen, J. (2016). Child abuse and physical health in adulthood. Health Reports, 27, 10–18., 10-18.
Alejo, K. (2014). Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Effects of Domestic Violence Violence. Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, Vol. 2 [2014], Art. 5.
Ali, P. (2018). Gender- based violence and the role of healthcare professionals. Nursing Open. 2018;5:4–5, 4-5.
Allender, J. A., Rector, C., & Warner, K. D. (2014). COMMUNITY & PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING Promoting the Public’s Health (8th edition ed.). United State: Wolters Kluwer Health.
Almiş, B. H., Kütük, E. K., Gümüştaş, F., & Çelik, M. (2018). Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Women and Predictors of Development of Mental Disorders in These Women. Arch Neuropsychiatry 2018;55:67−72, 67-72.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2016). Inquiry into Domestic Violenceand Gender Inequality. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission.
Aziz, M. M., & El-Gazzar, A. F. (2019). Health care providers’ perceptions and practices of screening for domestic. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 20 (2019) 93–99, 93-99.
Aziz, M. M., & El-Gazzar, A. F. (2019). Health care providers’ perceptions and practices of screening for domestic. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 20 (2019) 93–99, 93-99.
Bick, J., & Nelson, C. (2016). Early adverse experiences and the developing brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 177–196. Retrieved from doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.252, 177-196.
Bradbury-Jones, C., & Taylor, J. (2013). Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection. Nursing Philosophy 2013 Oct;14(4):295-304. doi: 10.1111/nup.12031, 295-304.
CDC. (2020, October 9). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Violence prevention Risk and Protective factors:
Choi, N., DiNitto, D., Marti, C., & Segal, S. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and suicide attempts among those with mental and substance use disorders. Child Abuse & Neglect, 69, 252–262. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.04.024, 252-262.
Cirik, V., Ciftcioglu, S., & Efe, E. (2017). Preventing child abuse and neglect. Archives of Nursing Practice and Care (2017)
Cullen, P., Mackean, T., Walker, N., Coombes, J., Bennett-Brook, K., Clapham, K., . . . Longbottom, M. (2021). Integrating Trauma and Violence Informed Care in Primary Health Care Settings for First Nations Women Experiencing Violence: A Systematic Review. TRAUMA, VIOLENCE, & ABUSE (2021) 1-16 DOI: 10.1177/1524838020985571, 1-16.
Das, M., Das, A., & Mandal, A. (2020). Examining the impact of lockdown (due to COVID-19) on Domestic Violence (DV): An evidences from India . Asian Journal of Psychiatry (2020) 102335
Edwards, E., janney, C. A., Mancuso, A., Rollings, H., VanDenToom, A., DeYoung, M., & Eastburg, S. H. (2020). Preparing for the Behavioral Health Impact of COVID-19 in Michigan. Current Psychiatry Reports (2020) 22: 88
Eija, P., Mika, H., Aune, F., & Leila, L. (2014). How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in ChildMaltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Nursing Research and Practice Volume 2014
Evans, M. L., Lindauer, M., & Farrell, M. E. (2020). A Pandemic within a Pandemic — Intimate Partner Violence during Covid-19. New Journal England Medicine 383;24 December 10, 2020, 2302-2304.
Fowler, J. H., Hill, S. J., Levin, R., & Obradovich, N. (2020). The Effect of Stay-at-Home Orders on COVID-19 Cases and Fatalities in the United States. medRxiv (2020)
Fuller-Thomson, E., Baird, S., Dhrodia, R., & Brennenstuhl, S. (2016). The association between adverse childhoodexperiences (ACEs) and suicide attempts in a population-based study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42,725–734. Doi: 10.1111/cch.12351, 725-734.
Gerino, E., Caldarera, A. M., Curti, L., Brustia, P., & Rolle, L. (2018). Intimate Partner Violence in the Golden Age: Systematic Review of Risk and Protective Factors. Front. Psychology 04 September 2018 |
Haas, J. J. (2021). The Role of the School Nurse in Detecting and Preventing Child Abuse During This Age of Online Education. NASN School Nurse January 2021 DOI: 10.1177/1942602X20958064.
Hamadani, J. D., Hasan, M. I., Baldi, A. J., Hossain, S. J., Shiraji, S., Bhuiyan, M. S., . . . Grantham-McGregor, S. (2020). Immediate impact of stay-at-home orders to control COVID-19 transmission on socioeconomic conditions, food insecurity, mental health, and intimate partner violence in Bangladeshi women and their families: an interrupted time series. Lancet Glob Health 2020 .
Herrenkohl, T. I., Scott, D., Higgins, D. J., Klika, J. B., & Lonne, B. (2021). How COVID-19 Is Placing Vulnerable Children at Risk and Why We Need a Different Approach to Child Welfare. Child Maltreatment 2021, Vol. 26(1) 9-16 DOI: 10.1177/1077559520963916, 9-16.
Hornor, G., Bretl, D., Chapman, E., Herendeen, P., Mitchel, N., Mulvaney, B., . . . VanGraafeiland, B. (2017). Child Maltreatment Screening and Anticipatory Guidance : A Description of Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Behavior. Journal of Pediatric Health Care Volume 31 Number 6
Hutchinson, M., Doran, F., Brown, J., Douglas, T., East, L., Irwin, P., . . . Yates, K. (2020). A cross-sectional study of domestic violence instruction in nursing and midwifery programs: Out of step with community and student expectations. Nurse Education Today 84 (2020) 104209
ILO. (2019). Domestic violence and its impact on the world of work. International Labour Organization.
Jack, S. M., Gonzalez, A., Marcellus, L., Tonmyr, L., Varcoe, C., Borek, N. V., . . . Waddell, C. (2021). Public Health Nurses’ Professional Practices to Prevent, Recognize, and Respond to Suspected Child Maltreatment in Home Visiting: An Interpretive Descriptive Study. Global Qualitative Nursing ResearchVolume 8: 1 –15.
Jack, S. M., Munro-Kramer, M. L., Williams, J. R., Schminkey, D., Tomlinson, E., Mayo-Wilson, L. J., . . . Campbell, J. C. (2021). Recognising and responding to intimate partner violence usingtelehealth: Practical guidance for nurses and midwives. J Clin Nurs. 2021;30:588–602. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.15554 , 588-602.
Jonson-Reid, M., Kohl, P. L., & Drake, B. (2012). Child and Adult Outcomes of Chronic Child Maltreatment. PEDIATRICS Volume 129, Number 5, May 2012, 839-845.
Kalra, N., Tanna, G. L., & García-Moreno, C. (2017). Training healthcare providers to respond to intimate partnerviolence against women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017, Issue 2. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012423.
Kavanaugh, B., Dupont-Frechette, J., Jerskey, B., & Holler, K. (2016). Neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents following maltreatment: Neurodevelopmental consequences and neuropsychological implications of traumatic stress. Applied Neuropsychology: Child 6, 64–78. Doi: 10.1080/21622965.2015.1079712, 64-78.
Krishnakumar, A., & Verma, S. (2021). Understanding Domestic Violence in IndiaDuring COVID-19: a Routine Activity Approach. Asian Journal of Criminology (2021) 16:19–35
Krishnan, T. R., Hassan, S. H., Satyanarayana, V. A., & Chandra, P. S. (2020). Domestic Violence during the COVID 19 Pandemic: Lessons to be Learned. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry (2020) DOI: 10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_264_20, 120-125.
Laeheem, K. (2016). Factors affecting domestic violence risk behaviors among Thai Muslim married couples in Satun province. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences 37 (2016), 182-189.
Marroquína, B., Vine, V., & Morgan, R. (2020). Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: Effects of stay-at-home policies, social distancing behavior, and social resources. Psychiatry Research 293 (2020) 113419
McFeely, C., Lombard, N., & Burman, M. (2013). Domestic Abuse and Gender Inequality: An overview of the current debate. Centre for Research on Families and Relationships Briefing 69 August 2013
McLindon, E., Humphreys, C., & Hegarty, K. (2018). "It happens to clinicians too”: an Australianprevalence study of intimate partner andfamily violence against health professionals. BMC Women's Health (2018) 18:113
Monnat, S., & Chandler, R. (2015). Long-term physical health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. The Sociological Quarterly, 56, 723–752. doi: 10.1111/tsq.12107, 723–752.
Opekitan, A. T., Bolanle, F., Olawale, O., & Olufunke, A. (2019). Awareness of Social Infrastructures for Victims of Child Abuse Among Primary Health Workers in Ogun State, Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 2019, Vol. 40(1) 23–27, 23-27.
Perez-Vincent, S. M., Carreras, E., Gibbons, M. A., Murphy, T. E., & Rossi, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 Lockdowns and Domestic ViolenceEvidence from Two Studies in Argentina. Inter-American Development Bank.
Poreddi, V., Gandhi, S., Reddy, S. N., Palaniappan, M., & BadaMath, S. (2020). Violence against women with mental illness and routine screening: Nurses' knowledge, confidence, barriers and learning needs. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 34 (2020) 398–404, 398–404.
Shackelford, T. K. (2021). The SAGE Handbook of Domestic Violence. Sage Publications Ltd.
Sines, D. (2013). The Context of Primary Healthcare Nursing. In D. Sines, S. Aldridge-bent, A. Fanning, P. Farrelly, K. Potter, & J. Wright, Community and Public Health Nursing. UK: Willey Blackwell.
Sri, A. S., Das, P., Gnanapragasam, S., & Persaud, A. (2021). COVID-19 and the violence against women and girls: ‘The shadow pandemic’. International Journal of Social Psychiatry (2021) DOI: 10.1177/0020764021995556, 1-3.
Susmitha, B. (2016). Domestic Violence: Causes, Impact and Remedial Measures. Social Change46(4) 602–610 DOI: 10.1177/0049085716666636, 602-610.
Tull, M. T., Edmonds, K. A., Scamaldo, K. M., Richmond, J. R., Rose, J. P., & Gratz, K. L. (2020). Psychological Outcomes Associated with Stay-at-Home Orders and thePerceived Impact of COVID-19 on Daily Life. Psychiatry Research 289 (2020) 1130982
UNICEF. (2020). Child Protection Learning Brief #1. UNICEF.
UNWOMEN ; WHO ; UNODC ; Covid-19 Response. (2020). The Shadow Pandemic : Covid-19 and essential Services for Women and Girls Survivor of Violence. UNWOMEN ; WHO ; UNODC ; Covid-19 response.
WHO. (2020, 03 12). World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic:
WHO. (2020b, June 8). World Health Organization. Retrieved from Child maltreatment:,the%20nervous%20and%20immune%20systems.
Widom, C., Czaja, S., Bentley, T., & Johnson, M. (2012). A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: New findings from a 30-year follow up. American Journal of Public Health, 102. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300636, 1135–1144.
Williston, C. J., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2013). Holy cow, does that ever open up a can of worms": health care providers' experiences of inquiring about intimate partner violence. Health Care Women International 2013;34(9):814-31. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2013.794460, 814-831.
Zhang, H. (2020). The Influence of the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Violence in China. Journal of Family Violence
How to Cite
Prasasti, A., & Widyatuti, W. (2021). The Role of Community Nurses to Prevent Domestic Violence During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Proceedings of the International Conference on Nursing and Health Sciences, 2(1), 9-18. Retrieved from